1. Operating System (OS)
Operating System is a software platform that allows other applications to run on any electronic device. Through the Operating System, users can operate and manage hardware devices and software resources.
Functions of operating system
- System programs
- Hardware devices management
- Software resource management
- As a platform for other applications
- Operating System acts as an intermediary between user and computer
Operating System components
The Operating System has 3 important components: Kernel, User Interface and Program Execution:
- The kernel provides basic control to the hardware device. Thereby, it takes on the missions of: reading – writing data, processing commands, determining data which received and sent by other devices, receiving data from the network.
- User Interface helps to interact between the user and the computer.
- Program Execution allows applications to communicate with hardware to execute programs.
2. Popular Operating Systems
There are many Operating Systems such as Windows, Linux, Mac, etc.
In 2021, Microsoft launches the Windows 11 Operating System.
On August 25, 1991, Linus (Linus Torvalds) released version 0.01 and announced on the comp.os.minix about his intentions for Linux.
January 1992, Linus released version 0.12 with shell and C compiler. Linus no longer needs Minix to recompile its OS. Linus named his OS Linux.
In 1994, official version 1.0 of Linux was released.
In late 2001, the latest version of the Linux kernel was 2.4, which was capable of controlling multiprocessor machines and many other features. There are many other Operating Systems developed based on Linux Kernel such as Ubuntu, Red Hat, CentOS, etc.
MAC OS (Macintosh Operating System) is developed by Apple Corporation for Apple Macintosh computers. The first version was released in 1984.